Beaufort Tapestry

A tapestry, so what? Find out more about what makes medieval tapestries like this one so special.


Learn more about this object

Keywords: Tapestries, fragment, medieval Europe, Avignon, pope, papal city

Catherine Woods, Hunt MuseumCatherine Woods, Hunt Museum

3 minutes to read

1 April, 2019

A tapestry portion, rectangular in shape and a fragment of the Beaufort armorial tapestry. Beaufort, Turenne and Comminges Tapestry Fragment | Wool, Cotton, Canvas | c.14th | Hunt Museum | PD

Figure 1. Beaufort, Turenne and Comminges Tapestry Fragment | Wool, Cotton, Canvas | c.14th | Hunt Museum | PD
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On first viewing, you may not be particularly impressed by the Beaufort Tapestry fragment.

It is after all, somewhat faded and of course highly restored. But these factors should not deflect from its importance.

Why?  Well, firstly it was created on or shortly after 1370, making it almost 650 years old.  But, even more importantly, it is the only known pre-15th century armorial tapestry that still survives.

The Hunt Museum fragment is one of ten listed sections of this iconic creation.


A Tapestry, So what?

Tapestries were highly valued in medieval Europe. The great period of tapestry weaving ran from the second half of the 14th century right up to the end of the 18th century. Wall hangings were extremely popular and were used to decorate both public and private areas. Tapestries were versatile. They could be rolled up and moved quite easily from one residence to another. They added colour to rooms and kept out breezes. [Remember ancient castles were cold draughty places. Windows did not have glass panes and insulation was unknown.] Also, they were very costly to produce and so were luxury items. Owning tapestries symbolised wealth, success and social class. They were the  Rolls Royce of the Middle Ages! [Henry VIII is reputed to have had 2000 of them hanging in his various palaces]


So, what about the Beaufort Tapestry?

It is thought to have been created for Guillaume III Roger de Beaufort  13321395 and his family.

Figure 1. Close-up of Beaufort tapestry. Guillaume III Roger de Beaufort and his father falcon hunting.

Figure 1. Guillaume III Roger de Beaufort and his father falcon hunting, the Stag Room of the Palace of the Popes of Avignon, by Jean-Marc Rosier from, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Guillaume III Roger de Beaufort was appointed rector of the papal city of Avignon in 1370 when his brother became Pope Gregory XI in 1370.

The tapestry design uses repeating patterns, where a lion, stag, elephant or a unicorn carrying a heraldic shield  are placed at the centre. This central animal is enclosed at the top by angel figures holding a crown and at the bottom by turreted walls, probably those of Avignon. There is further enclosure by rosettes and by swans, the symbol of Avignon’s first bishop, St Agricola.


Sur le Pont!

The mention of Avignon may bring to mind the children’s song “Sur le Pont d’Avignon.” Whatever the flippancy of a childish song, 14th century Avignon was a city of repute and renown. From 1309 until 1377 it replaced Rome as the home of the papacy, and seven successive popes resided there. This happened for a variety of reasons. Avignon was chosen as the new papal city as it was owned by the papacy and also enjoyed the protection of the powerful French king. Of course, this move was not universally popular. It proved very controversial and almost caused another split in the church. Ironically, it was Pope Gregory XI, [pictured below], brother of Guillaume Roger III of Beaufort tapestry fame, who initiated the return of the papacy to Rome.

Portrait of pope Gregory XI, Avignon, France, by Henri Auguste Calixte César Serrur

Figure 2. Portrait of pope Gregory XI, Avignon, France, by Henri Auguste Calixte César Serrur (1794-1865), CC BY-SA 4.0.

Where are the other Beaufort sections?

Besides the Hunt Museum fragments, nine others are known to be  located at the following locations.

Getting some further information related to the tapestry fragments and how they came to be so widely distributed would be a subject of considerable interest.


  1. Tanner, Norman, New Short History of the Catholic Church, Burnes & Oates, London, 2011.
  2. MacCullouch, Diarmaid, A History of Christianity, Penguin, London, 2011.
  3. Doran, Patrick F, North Munster Antiquarium Journal, p13&14, Vol XX, 1978. Hunt Museum Essential Guide.
  7. https://en.wikipedia.

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